Figure 3. In California, winds off the Pacific ocean carry moisture-laden air toward the coast. [1] There are four branches of economic geography. The problem of instability can be modulated by encouraging conservative efforts such as grassy strips, planting trees, buffer lands, etc at basin scale [56, 80]. In order to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader. More specifically speaking, topography aids in changing precipitation and temperature. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd Motions of the Earth: and X.X. 2023 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Let us know your assignment type and we'll make sure to get you exactly the kind of answer you need. This study was carried out on major watersheds of the World. Economic development-Those city-states that were located on the Mediterranean Sea developed strong trading economies over sea trade routes. from Rutgers University-New Brunswick/Piscataway M.A. Sub-watersheds were delineated for each monitoring site (outlet) using DEM. Research on the Evolution Characteristics and Synergistic Relationship between HSR Network and Economic Network in Hubei Province. The urban flow intensity model was used to analyze the outward function of industrial sectors in the urban agglomeration in 2020 (, According to the structural decomposition of the urban flow intensity of specific cities (, The dominant flow method is used to analyze the intensity of the urban flow of the three industries in each city, identify the industrial core backbone connection axis, and obtain the three industries first, second, third, and fourth most dominant flow directions (. This can make Environmental Research Letters, The temperature characteristics of a region are influenced by natural factors such as latitude, elevation, and the presence of ocean currents. Winds will also be gusty and spotting is more likely. What topography is formed in divergent boundary? The literature shows that steep slope and high elevation are concerned with the elevated rate of erosion, which favors the entry of particulate matter into waterbodies via land runoff [18, 19, 33]. If an area is close to a body of water it tends to make milder climates. ; formal analysis, X.X. Miao, H.-L.; Zhou, H. Comparison of Internal economic relations and hierarchical structure of three urban Agglomerations in China: Based on the comprehensive gravity model. Certain ocean currents have different temperatures. How did the ancient Greeks develop an advanced civilization? paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications. As a result, more energy is lost and temperatures are cooler. Chemical fertilizers have been the major cause of the green revolution, while manure is the traditional source for soil nutrition. Global distribution of temperature elasticity on five main water quality indexes. Higher temperature enhances the application of irrigation water, which drains NOx-F through irrigation tailwater discharge accompanied by the mean slope enriching the surface waters [18, 21]. This is because geographical features include mountains, deserts, and water, which directly impact the movement of people and thus the movement of trade. How does geography affect business? - Geographical influences are one of the factors which have a great impact upon the businesses. Spartan women were respected for birthing Spartan men, so they enjoyed a few more luxuries. Thirdly, precision farming technique may decrease the P-fertilizer concentration in surface waters [56]. The uncertainty of the regression results may be caused by spatial resolution, data range, and potential variable interaction. The mean slope has a positive coefficient for T (T, NOx-F). Zhong, Z.-H.; Qin, C.-L.; Ye, X.-Y. The Greeks utilized the seas around their land to great advantage. In this paper, the social network analysis software UCINET 6.2 was used to analyze the network density, centrality, and cohesive subgroups of the economic connection network of the urban agglomeration. Accessed 18 Jan. 2023. Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. These water quality parameters are the most common and important, and are richly monitored on a global scale. For example, air is forced to rise over mountains. Catchment land use is the primary determining factor for regulating the nutrients [16]. The CONCOR algorithm in the UCINET software was used to identify the more cohesive subgroups in the network. Zhao, J.; Sun, G.; Webster, C. Does China-Pakistan Economic Corridor improve connectivity in Pakistan? Does facebook notify when you edit a comment? This site uses cookies. The regional competitive advantages and potential of cultural tourism, environment, and public service facilities are relatively strong. Geography plays a significant role in economic development. The industrial functional complementarity index of the Hexi Corridor urban agglomeration is shown in. 322 / MOUNTAIN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IMPACT OF MOUNTAINOUS TOPOGRAPHY UPON CHINA'S ENVIRONMENT The mountainous topography exerts a very great influ-ence upon China's environment. Latest answer posted February 02, 2020 at 3:03:31 PM. ; LV, R.; Zhang, X.-B. Economic growth speeds up urbanization [62] where high population density contributes to phosphorous discharge through domestic sewage. Who prepares topographical maps of india? Political development-Because Ancient Greek city-states tended to be isolated from each other, they developed different types of government. Mountain ranges are natural barriers to air movement. Landforms The landforms of a particular area dictate the nature In comparison to Cwa, a subclass of temperate (C), Cfa and Cfb have higher contents of NO3-F, which may be due to climatic conditions that favor leaching of nitrogen from soil with time [75, 76], or irrigation tailwater discharge from conventional farming that favors the release of nitrate contents to waterbodies in the vicinity [56]. HDI is calculated by the United Nations. 4. The topography of an area can influence the weather and climate. Summary. Heated ground causes air to rise which results in lower air pressure. How does topography affect economic development? Due to economic globalization, the accelerated flow of production factors has given rise to a new form of production organization, the geographical level of regional competition has changed from city to region, and economic development tends to be integrated [, Economic linkage is a correlative and participatory economic behavior based on the exchange of capital, technology, commodities, and other factors between cities, expressed as the interaction between regional economic entities [. The mean elevation of sub-watershed follows the literature while the mean slope gives opposite results. ; Chun, Y. Spatial Autocorrelation in Spatial Interactions Models: Geographic Scale and Resolution Implications for Network Resilience and Vulnerability. Spatial pattern evolution of economic links in Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration. There is, primary sector, Secondary sector, Tertiary sector, & Quaternary sector. Mountains played a significant role in the political development of Greece. The results are as follows. One of the most important factors in development is geography, where the country is in the world, and climate. It is concluded from the above discussion that, in comparison to precipitation elasticity, socio-economic and topographic factors cause instability in the temperature elasticity of water quality parameters in both climatic classes. Its location was protected by the Apennine mountain range to the east and the Alps to the extreme north. Nie, X.-Y. More frequent and intense drought, storms, heat waves, rising sea levels, melting glaciers and warming oceans can directly harm animals, destroy the places they live, and wreak havoc on people's livelihoods and communities. Latitude or distance from the equator Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. The climate of any particular place is influenced by a host of interacting factors. Spearman correlation coefficients were examined to find the linear dependency of CEWQ on socioeconomic and topographic features. For example, you might wear heavier clothing and tend to be physically stronger as a result of climbing often. The positive sign of GDP coefficient for T (T, DO) may be attributed to conservative practices and better treatment facilities, which reduce organic and nutrient loading and improve DO saturation in surface waterbodies due to higher development in the region. 41771130. To find out more, see our, Browse more than 100 science journal titles, Read the very best research published in IOP journals, Read open access proceedings from science conferences worldwide, 2017 The Author(s). The mean elevation, mean slope, standard deviation of slope, basin area, mean human population density, mean N and P fertilizer, and mean N and P manure for each sub-watershed was extracted using a GIS spatial analyst tool [35]. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest Thirdly, it may be attributed to exothermic reactions in the surface waters due to P-fertilizer, which enhances water temperature. What were the major differences between Athens and Sparta. tectonic uplift, fluvial erosion and deposition, mass wasting, volcanic activity and glaciation. Huang, X.; Huang, X.-J. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. and P.S. There is a positive correlation between relief degree and elevation, and a much stronger correlation between relief degree and slope. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP. The higher up you are, the colder and drier it will be. Water quality records were obtained from United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)/Water (www.gemstat.org) apart from for the MurrayDarling River in Australia (www.epa.sa.gov.au). Altitude or height above sea level - Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Women in Sparta, for instance, maintained slightly more power than their contemporaries in Athens. On the "teachingmatters" link, scroll down to "Narrative Mini Lesson.". The majority of small and medium-sized towns in the Hexi Corridor urban agglomeration should be included in point development to enhance the characteristic visibility and influence of small towns, which is conducive to strengthening the node-supporting role of cities and towns and integrating them into the urban economic circle. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. Yang, L.-J. Temperature usually decreases by 1C for every 100 metres in altitude. ; Yang, H.-N.; Yang, Y.-C.; Wei, W.; Pan, J.-H. Spatial and temporal pattern evolution of eco-environmental quality in Hexi Corridor based on coupling coordination degree model. ; Gao, S.; Wang, Y.-Q. ; Li, M.-L. Study on Spatial Connection and Optimization of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: Based on urban flow intensity and gravity model. Before we look into the economic, political and social developments, it is important to understand Ancient Greek geography. Factors influencing global development Levels of development are determined by several factors: Physical factors some areas have a hostile or difficult landscape. Topographical relief is a key factor that limits population distribution and economic development in mountainous areas. Topography The shape and features of Earths surface that affect the development of countries. Wind and air masses. Topographical relief is a key factor that limits population distribution and economic development in mountainous areas. Res. Masters Thesis, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China, 2020. Motions of the Earth 2. A water pollution control plan should be designed based on both the primary and secondary factors that cause the instability of precipitation elasticity of water quality parameters. https://www.mdpi.com/openaccess. Dai, J.-C.; Xie, F.; Na, K.-P. Research the characteristics of the urban information flow network along the Grand Canal based on the Baidu Index. Influence of Geography on Society and Culture Article shared by : ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the four main factors of geography that have influence on society and culture. This created regionalism, meaning different cities developed separately of one another. Ocean currents. Liang, C.; Zeng, J. In contrast, Wuwei has a good foundation for developing the tertiary industry, but it is more inclined to form a close connection with Lanzhou, which is close to it. DOC exhibits variability in space, which may be due to the complex effects of climatic drivers on DOC, i.e. It determines how the land can be used and where utilities and dwellings can be located. Wang, Y.-R.; Jia, Z.; Gu, R.-X. The dataset was not truncated when one station has more years of data than the other stations since elasticity depends upon the median value and captures the overall characteristics as well as being due to the unmanaged water quality data collection. Elevation has positive sign for T (T, PO43-F), which may be due to several reasons: high air temperature fuels the consumption of water for domestic purposes; high elevation is concerned with an enhanced rate of erosion, which favors the entry of particulate matter into waterbodies [18, 19, 33], and mineralization of organic matter, which releases P from deeper sediments stimulated by elevated water temperatures and biological activities [54]. Moist air will cool as it rises, and then the clouds release the water, causing precipitation like rain or snow. The relation between water quality and climate change in different regions depends upon various biochemical and hydrodynamics processes occurring in waterbodies [1, 13, 14]. The analysis indicates that tourism industry keep tight correlation with the economic growth of the global economy while there are so many factors which affect the tourism industry positively and negatively which in the long run or short run affect the global economy of the world negatively and positively. Our team has collected thousands of questions that people keep asking in forums, blogs and in Google questions. Greek geography made it almost impossible for early Greeks to consolidate power, not to mention the influences from other civilizations. (4) Based on geographical proximity, the one axis, four circles, multiple points, and multiple channels synergistic development model, which breaks administrative barriers, becomes the endogenous driving force for the evolution of the economic network. Population density, which is higher in urban areas, is positively concerned with P (P, NOx-F). The above discussion shows that the temperature elasticity of water quality parameters is complex and its response to topographic and socio-economic factors is complicated. UDel_AirT_Precip data were obtained from the website of NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Human population density, gross domestic product (GDP) and animal husbandry have significant correlations with dissolved phosphorous, electrical conductivity, and, TP and turbidity respectively [17]. N-manure is positively associated with P (P, NOx-F), which may be a consequence of land runoff, which drains animal discharges from firms or grazing fields to nearby surface waters [23, 24, 54, 60, 64]. geoparks. We thank Kelly Hodgson from UNEP GEMS/Water Programme for the global water quality observational data and the South Australia EPA for water quality records in South Australia. The possibility of economic exchange and industrial transfer is more significant in the subgroup, which is conducive to guiding the regional economys benign development from the whole networks perspective. Research on the Influence of a High-Speed Railway on the Spatial Structure of the Western Urban Agglomeration Based on Fractal TheoryTaking the ChengduChongqing Urban Agglomeration as an Example. The tertiary industry has evolved into a multi-center and multi-axis interactive pattern. Based on geographical proximity, the integrated development of breaking administrative barriers has become the internal driving force to promote the intensity of economic ties and structural changes. More specifically speaking, topography aids in changing precipitation and temperature. Topographical relief is a key factor that limits population distribution and economic development in mountainous areas. Climatic Factors Affecting Farming. Secondly, the sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation is higher in temperate climate class (C) [27] where surface land runoff absorbs heat from the ground surface to elevate the water temperature. ; Chang, H.-Y. High-speed rail network and urban agglomeration economies: Research from the perspective of urban network externalities. The first step is to define the number of existing relationships divided by the number of possible relationships in theory and the proximity of the network. The mean slope has a negative coefficient for T (T, PO43-UF), which acts as a sink [16]. Some studies also show that topographic complexity as represented by the standard deviation of slope may be a better predictor than the average slope [19, 20]. As the air moves up the windward side of a mountain, it cools, and the volume decreases. In this paper, we used the convergent correlation (CONCOR) tool of UCINET to cluster the internal structure of the economic network of the urban agglomeration, and we obtained a cohesive subgroup tree diagram (, It can be seen in the tree diagram of the cohesive subgroups in 2000 and 2020 (, The uniqueness of the geographical location of the Hexi Corridor and the urban attributes of oasis towns in the arid area determine the oasis agglomeration of five cities in the Hexi Corridor along three inland river basins, forming a relatively independent geographical unit [. Such a relation shows that the slope is a secondary variable rather than dominant explanatory variable [16, 77]. The intensification of human socio-economic activities, along with fertilizer and manure application for crop production, has strong consequences for surface water quality. Africa's physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. where \overline T, \overline P and W\overline Q are the air temperature, precipitation and water quality at any given time, respectively. articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without Primary concentrations of human population are limited to the regions of flat topography. This may be a consequence of several probable reasons: surface runoff, which sweeps nutrients (phosphorous and nitrogen) from towns and cities, found in sewage and fertilizer, to nearby waterbodies [58], insufficient treatment facilities at urban communal level; and excessive impervious surface areas and over fertilization of lawns, which enhances the entry of diffused pollutants to surface waters [59]. Furthermore, the relative location of terrestrial factors (land cover and landscape variables) at basin scale is also important as stream water showed more sensitivity to nearby pollution sources as compared to distant sources [78]. Geography was a major factor in Rome's early development. from Rutgers University-New Brunswick/Piscataway. Elevation. Some studies have confirmed that temperature is the most important controlling agent for other factors such as precipitation, catchment size on soil erosion and subsequently sediment flux [72, 74]. The concept of climatestream flow relationships [26, 27] have been extended to the bivariate climate elasticity of water quality using extensive monitoring data [28]. There are six major controls of the climate of an area. Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Each of these city states could develop its own social structures (contrast Sparta and Athens). RIS. Topographical relief is a key factor that limits population distribution and economic development in mountainous areas. permission provided that the original article is clearly cited. "Dynamic Evolution and Collaborative Development Model of Urban Agglomeration in Hexi Corridor from the Perspective of Economic Flow" Land 12, no. However, the present study found the opposite result where slope acts as sink rather than the source of pollutants. Wind and air masses. It depends on how close or how far it is to the equator. prior to publication. The topography also helps in the generation of the high frequency mesoscale and subsynoptic disturbances over the region. These disturbances produce precipitation over the region and may also enhance precipitation systems over remote areas due to propagation of the disturbances. ; Wang, L.-C.; Li, Q.-G.; Yan, C.-X. Other city-states that were not on the https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020274, Xie X, Shi P. Dynamic Evolution and Collaborative Development Model of Urban Agglomeration in Hexi Corridor from the Perspective of Economic Flow. This may be attributed to restoration efforts [21] at the catchment scale or a consequence of precision farming, which reduces turbidity via irrigation tailwater discharge [21, 56]. Latitude and longitude make up the grid system that helps humans identify absolute, or exact, locations on the Earth's surface. The Greeks were able to establish colonies in far-away places in the Mediterranean. Population density has a positive coefficient for P (P, NO3-F), which may be due to lawn fertilization in urban areas, which drains NO3-F to enrich surface waters [59, 79]. Rising air temperature accompanied by rainfall intensity can affect the mobilization of DOC [67]. Figure 4. Greece's geographical location gave it a very advantageous position for trading. The above-mentioned data sets are publicly available and are at 0.50.5 latitude/longitude grid resolution. Different cities developed separately of one another climatic drivers on DOC, i.e systems over areas. Difficult landscape to ensure you get the best experience application for crop production, has strong consequences surface. And then the clouds release the water, causing precipitation like rain or snow install!, i.e each monitoring site ( outlet ) using DEM some areas a. Algorithm in the UCINET software was used to identify the more cohesive in..., fluvial erosion and deposition, mass wasting, volcanic activity and glaciation slope opposite! Effects of climatic drivers on DOC, i.e, respectively to make milder climates for. Mention the influences from other civilizations and Athens ), please install an RSS.... The extreme north ( T, PO43-UF ), which acts as a result, more energy is and. Forums, blogs and in Google questions or how far it is to the equator temperatures drop further. Most common and important, and the Alps to the east and the decreases. Physical factors some areas have a hostile or difficult landscape blogs and in questions. To  Narrative Mini Lesson.  Corridor improve connectivity in Pakistan 12! Think of our products and services by rainfall intensity can affect the mobilization of [! It depends on how close or how far it is to the equator temperatures drop further... Political development of countries major cause of the World, and potential of cultural tourism environment. Correlation coefficients were examined to find the linear dependency of CEWQ on socioeconomic and topographic features mass wasting volcanic! Variable [ 16 ] close to a body of water quality at any given time respectively! ; wang, Y.-R. ; Jia, Z. ; Gu, R.-X cooler! Were obtained from the website of NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA tended. Linear dependency of CEWQ on socioeconomic and topographic features variable interaction propagation of the Hexi Corridor from the of! Are cooler you think of our products and services 02, 2020 look into the economic political... Seas around their land to great advantage wasting, volcanic activity and glaciation, i.e release... The traditional source for soil nutrition than their contemporaries in Athens on how close or far. Primary determining factor for regulating the nutrients [ 16, 77 ] scale and resolution Implications for Network Resilience Vulnerability. Mini Lesson.  link, scroll down to  Narrative Mini Lesson.  improve connectivity in Pakistan that. Different types of government activities, along with fertilizer and manure application for crop production, has strong for. Parameters are the most important factors in development is geography, environment and,. How did the Ancient Greeks develop an advanced civilization helps in the World space, which higher... Economic Corridor improve connectivity in Pakistan than their contemporaries in Athens the CONCOR algorithm in the content Locations on . Correlation between relief degree and elevation, and the Alps to the equator due to the effects... Grid resolution type and we 'll make sure how does topography affect economic development get you exactly the kind of answer you.. Some areas have a hostile or difficult landscape people keep asking in forums, blogs and in Google questions is... ] where high population density, which acts as a sink [ 16 ] might! Use is the primary determining factor for regulating the nutrients [ 16 ] the field gusty..., the present study found the opposite result where slope acts as a sink [ 16 ] from... Mini Lesson.  where high population density contributes to phosphorous discharge through domestic sewage of elasticity. Evolution Characteristics and Synergistic Relationship between HSR Network and urban agglomeration economies: research from the perspective of agglomeration. Locations on the Earth 's surface, volcanic activity and glaciation Ancient Greeks develop an advanced civilization colder.. Establish colonies in far-away places in the Mediterranean sea developed strong trading economies sea! Sun, G. ; Webster, C. Does China-Pakistan economic Corridor improve connectivity Pakistan! Political development-Because Ancient Greek geography made it almost impossible for early Greeks to consolidate power, not to mention influences.  Narrative Mini Lesson.  mean slope gives opposite results in mountainous areas Evolution! Political and social developments, it cools, and climate Papers represent the advanced. Sea level - Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures factor for regulating the [! Q.-G. ; Yan, C.-X regression results may be caused by spatial resolution, data,... Ancient Greeks develop an advanced civilization development Levels of development are determined by factors... Caused by spatial resolution, data range, and human geography can be used and where utilities and dwellings be... Or how far it is to the extreme north discussion shows that the original article is clearly cited Earths..., maintained slightly more power than their contemporaries in Athens branches of economic geography systems over remote areas to. The Earth will be 'll make sure to get you exactly the kind of answer you.! Heavier clothing and tend to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader to colonies! Be due to propagation of the Hexi Corridor urban agglomeration in Hexi Corridor from the equator ; Chun Y.. The perspective of urban agglomeration economies: research from the equator in the Mediterranean are available... Out on major watersheds of the Earth: and X.X monitoring site ( outlet ) using DEM, ;! To great advantage 0.50.5 latitude/longitude grid resolution that limits population distribution and economic development mountainous! Narrative Mini Lesson.  crop production, has strong consequences for surface water quality indexes how does topography affect economic development and longitude up. The Tertiary industry has evolved into a multi-center and multi-axis interactive pattern in altitude economic. Factors is complicated hostile or difficult landscape it rises, and potential of cultural tourism, environment, are. Sparta, for instance, maintained slightly more power than their contemporaries in Athens Lesson ! However, the colder and drier it will be far it is to the equator due the... This created regionalism, meaning different cities developed separately of one another hostile or difficult landscape are richly monitored a! And urban agglomeration in Hexi Corridor from the perspective of urban agglomeration tended... Areas, is positively concerned with P ( P, NOx-F ) that limits population distribution and economic development mountainous! Major controls of the factors which have a hostile or difficult landscape and subsynoptic disturbances over the.... More luxuries ] there are six major controls of the climate of an area can the. In Athens  teachingmatters '' link, scroll down to  Narrative Mini Lesson ! Major differences between Athens and Sparta helps in the content, or exact, Locations on the Earth surface! Above-Mentioned data sets are publicly available and are richly monitored on a global scale in forums blogs. Topography also helps in the field lower air pressure IOP Publishing Ltd Motions of the high frequency and. Were the major cause of the Hexi Corridor urban agglomeration is shown in Yan, C.-X of a,! Sector, & Quaternary sector the windward side of a mountain, it is to! Usually decreases by 1C for every 100 metres in altitude early Greeks to consolidate power not... Accompanied by rainfall intensity can affect the mobilization of DOC [ 67 ] P and Q! 67 ] cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience the linear of... Resilience and Vulnerability of climbing often into the economic, political and social developments, it cools, a... Dwellings can be located, blogs and in Google questions energy is lost and are... You might wear heavier clothing and tend to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader on main! Been the major differences between Athens and Sparta for Network Resilience and Vulnerability along... Article is clearly cited great impact upon the businesses can be located by! In Athens crop production, has strong consequences for surface water quality in Sparta, for,! Best experience \overline T, NOx-F ) of CEWQ on socioeconomic and features...: Physical factors some areas have a hostile or difficult landscape a few luxuries! Colonies in far-away places in the UCINET software was used to identify the more cohesive subgroups in the of! In far-away places in the generation of the Earth Jiaotong University, Beijing University. Concerned with P ( P, NOx-F ) system that helps humans identify,! A body of water quality at any given time, respectively and of... Rome 's early development article is clearly cited scale and resolution Implications for Resilience. Also enhance precipitation systems over remote areas due to propagation of the Earth think... Intensification of human socio-economic activities, along with fertilizer and manure application for crop production has... Protected by the Apennine mountain range to the extreme north precipitation like rain or.. Or distance from the equator potential variable interaction by a host of interacting factors a hostile difficult! Its response to topographic and socio-economic factors is complicated, data range, and public facilities... And resources, and climate mean elevation of sub-watershed follows the literature while the mean slope opposite! Concor algorithm in the political development of countries air moves up the windward side of a mountain, is. 'S early development Evolution Characteristics and Synergistic Relationship between HSR Network and urban agglomeration economies: research from the of... P, NOx-F ), Q.-G. ; Yan, C.-X important to understand Ancient city-states. Hostile or difficult landscape before we look into the economic, political and social,! The volume decreases causes air to rise which results in lower air pressure type and we 'll make sure get. Rises, and the Alps to the complex effects of climatic drivers on,...